A relationship between two species in which one species is actively
harmed (as by the production of toxins by the harming species).
A resistance mechanism employed (usually by a plant) to deter or
prevent pest colonisation. Proposed by Kogan and Ortman (1978) to replace
Non-preference; intended to parallel Anti-biosis.
An assay for the activity or potency of a substance that involves testing
its activity on living material.
(kärb-mt, kär-bmt) n. A salt or ester of carbamic acid, especially one
used as an insecticide.
Power or capacity to produce a desired effect; effectiveness.
An enzyme that breaks ester linkages, especially the ones found in
nucleic acids (phosphodiester bonds) and lipids. or An enzyme
that catalyses the hydrolysis of organic esters to release an alcohol
or thiol and acid. The term could be applied to enzymes that hydrolyse
carboxylate, phosphate and sulphate esters, but is more often restricted
to the first class of substrate.
The cast-off skins or coverings of various organisms, such as the shells
of crabs or the external coverings of the larvae and nymphs of insects.
An instrument resembling a pair of pincers or tongs, used for grasping,
manipulating, or extracting, especially such an instrument used by a surgeon.
growth regulator Chemical substance which disrupts the action of insect
hormones that control moulting, development from pupa to adult and other
processes (Watson, Moore & Ware, 1976).
A stage of an insect or other arthropod between molts. Mosquitoes typically
have four istars in the larval period.
A narrow, usually calibrated glass tube into which small amounts of liquid
are suctioned for transfer or measurement.
Any extrachromosomal hereditary determinant. Plasmids are self-replicating
circular molecules of DNA that are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal,
fungal, algal, and plant species.
The nonfeeding stage between the larva and adult in the metamorphosis
of holometabolous insects, during which the larva typically undergoes
complete transformation within a protective cocoon or hardened case.
any of various synthetic compounds that are related to the pyrethrins
and resemble them in insecticidal properties
An organism, often an insect or rodent, that carries disease. 2. Plasmids,
viruses, or bacteria used to transport genes into a host cell. A gene
is placed in the vector; the vector then "infects" the bacterium.
resistance Resistance of a host plant to the vector of a virus. Three
basic types of vector resistance are recognised, antibiosis, antixenosis